see also: Sumerian:Phonology | Sumerian:Morphology and Syntax

Sumerian was a language spoken and written in the Ancient near-east up until the early common era. It is the first attested language, and, although it stopped being spoken after 2000 BCE, it was used in the writing systems of numerous neighboring languages and served as a tongue of religion and education centuries after it died. It has no provable or convincing genetic relations to any other languages; partly because of this, there have been several difficulties in reconstructing the phonology and grammar of Sumerian.